Tuesday, February 26, 2013

U.S. gives banking green light to Myanmar tycoons

U.S. gives banking green light to Myanmar tycoons

By Aung Hla Tun
YANGON | Mon Feb 25, 2013 8:53pm EST

(Reuters) - Two banks owned by tycoons associated with Myanmar's former military regime will start to do business with U.S. companies and investors in the latest reward for the Southeast Asian country's rapid political transformation.

The U.S. Treasury Department said on Friday it would issue a general licence for four of Myanmar's biggest banks -- Myanma Economic Bank, Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank, Asia Green Development Bank and Ayeyarwady Bank -- allowing U.S. companies and citizens to deal with them.

The easing of sanctions on Asia Green Development Bank and Ayeyarwady Bank underlines how politically connected capitalists of the old regime -- whom the United States once castigated -- are re-inventing themselves and retaining a strong foothold as foreign investors race to enter Myanmar.

It helps remove uncertainty among U.S. companies over lingering restrictions on their dealings in Myanmar and is expected to increase the domestic reach of U.S. credit card firms Visa Inc and MasterCard Inc.

The decision was announced ahead of a visit to Myanmar by 50 U.S. executives on Monday to explore opportunities in the resource-rich nation, the latest sign of burgeoning foreign corporate interest in the country of 60 million.

"This announcement will undoubtedly help the further development of the market," Antonio Corro, MasterCard's chief representative for IndoChina, said in a statement. "We expect that Myanmar's tourism sector will continue to grow rapidly and so building card acceptance is key."

Washington eased sanctions last July to allow U.S. companies to invest in and provide financial services to Myanmar, dropping restrictions on dealing with most Myanmar banks.

Sean Turnell, an expert on Myanmar's economy at Australia's Macquarie University, said the latest move was significant because it would normalize the flow of international funds in and out of Myanmar. But he said the inclusion of formerly blacklisted Ayeyarwady Bank and Asia Green Development Bank was a surprise given previous U.S. assurances that they "still had their eye on the worst offenders of the past regime".

"One of the great anxieties is over the cronyisation of the economy -- the fear it will be a fleeting summer and become like Russia," Turnell said.


Ayeyarwady Bank is owned by Zaw Zaw, who was previously described by the U.S. Treasury as "a regime crony" and blacklisted under targeted U.S. sanctions four years ago.

The tycoon, whose holdings range from timber and gems to luxury resorts and who benefited handsomely from state privatizations three years ago, told Reuters last year his dream was to build Ayeyarwady into an international brand.

Asia Green Development Bank is controlled by Tay Za, Myanmar's best-known tycoon. He was previously sanctioned by the U.S. Treasury as a "notorious henchman and arms dealer".

U.S. firms will still be barred from forming joint ventures with the banks. The other two banks granted a general licence on Friday are controlled by the government.

"It is now time for Myanmar and the U.S. to take the relationship to the next level," Tami Overby, vice president for Asia at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, told a meeting of U.S. and Myanmar business officials in Yangon.

Western countries have suspended most sanctions in recognition of Myanmar's dramatic political and economic opening since the new government took power in March 2011.

Critics say they risk moving too fast, pointing to evidence of human rights abuses in recent months against Myanmar's Rohingya Muslim minority group and ethnic Kachin rebels engaged in a conflict with the military.

MetLife, Cargill, Fedex, Chevron, General Motors, General Electric, Target, Honeywell and eBay are among the roughly two dozen U.S. companies visiting Myanmar this week.

Visa and MasterCard have already entered the country, partnering with several banks and gaining access to a nascent ATM network, but only a handful of merchants currently accept payment by card. A central bank official who asked not to be identified told Reuters that only six out of 19 private Myanmar banks can handle MasterCard and Visa cards at the moment.

"I am sure the recent easing of sanctions will enable the remaining banks to use these cards in the very near future," the official said.

Visa, which marked its first point-of-sale transaction in Myanmar last month at a Yangon restaurant, said in a statement to Reuters that decisions to apply for a Visa licence were "up to individual banks."

(Additional reporting by Stuart Grudgings in KUALA LUMPUR, Eveline Danubrata in SINGAPORE and David Henry in NEW YORK; Writing by Stuart Grudgings; Editing by Richard Borsuk and Paul Tait)

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Kachin Public Meeting With Thura Shwe Mann, House Speaker, in Myitkyina 9 February 2013 Part I

Thura Shwe Mann, House Speaker, visited Kachin State in mid February, including some refugee camps in Burmese government controlled areas. He then held a public meeting with Myitkyina residents on February 9, 2013

Sunday, February 10, 2013



Wabaw Zau Rip

1947 ning, February shata 12 ya shani, Sam Mung, Pang Lung mare, e bumga masha rai nga ai, Sam, Hkang. Jinglipaw hte Myen ni. myit mang hkrum nna. Pang Lung Ga Shaka hpe letmat jawm htu ma ai. Din ga shaka laika gaw, Mung Hpawm Myen Mimg byin wa ai ningpawt ninghpang rai nga ai.
1945 ning, mungkan majan ngut ai hpang, Inglik Asuya ni. Myen mung hpe bai up hkang na matu lajang sa wa ai shaloi majan aten India mung e hpyen hprawng nga ai, Myen Mung ( Governor) Mung up du, Sir Reginald Doi-man-Smith ningbaw ai Myen mung Atsuya gaw, lawn Myen mung hpe (Dominion Status) ngu ai madu up ahkang aya Jaw nna ngam nga ai, bumga masha. Sam, Hkang, Jinghpaw hte Karenni ( Kayah) amyu ni hpe gaw, garai nkung n hpan nchye n chyang ai amyu ni re majaw, Myen ni hte n gayau ai sha, shanhte Inglik ni a n-pu e. ( Frontier Areas Administration ) ngu ai bumga masha ni hpe san san up hkang ai lailen amyu mi hku, moi majan garai n byin yang na (Divide and Rule Policy ), amyu langai hte langai hpe garan up hkang ai lailen hte, naw up hkang na matu yaw shada maw mawn sa wa ma ai.
Dai aten hta lawu Myen mung e, Bogyoke Aung San woi awn ai, Hp.S.P.L. Hpung ni gaw Myen mung ting shanglawt lu hkra galaw na. Inglik ni Myen mung hpe shanglawt n jaw yang, gasat nna rai tim la na ngu daw dan shatawng shada sai hte maren mung masha ni yawng, mung masa lam hta myit rawt let shamu shamawt hpang wa nga ai aten rai nga ai.
Shing rai nga ai aten hta, anhte Jinghpaw Wunpawng sha ni hta mung, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng woi awn ai, ( Mung Masha Kunghpan Hpung ) hte Wabaw Zau Rip woi awn ai (Pawng Yawng Ram Rawt Hpung) ningbaw ningla ni hte mung masha ni gaw Inglik a mayam prat na lawt lu hkra galaw ra sai, shanglawt lu hkra shakut ra sai nga nna, mung masa lam ni myit hprang myit rawt, shamu shamawt hpang wa ai aten rai nga ai.
Sama Duwa gaw. "anhte Jinghpaw ni. Inglik a mayam prat na lawt hkra shakut ra sai. shanglawt la nna, Jinghpaw mung garan la ga."' nga, shani shana n yup n sha. hkrum mu ai Jinghpaw kanawn manang shagu hpe mung masa gamung hkaw tsun tik tik rai nga ai, kalang lang, lata machyi pi n dum hkra, lamu ga lahtum nna, n-gun mi alu hkaw garu jahtau marawn myit sharawt ya nga ai rai.
Jinghpaw Wunpawng sha ni mung masa lam hta myit hprang myit rawt nga ai aten hta. Hp.S.P.L.Hpung ningbaw Bogyoke Aung San gaw Myen mung Inglik Governor wa a Mung Bawng Ginjaw na mung makawp maga dap hte seng ai, hkring mang salang kaba (Wungyi ) rai nna hpyen dap ni hpe gawan hkawm let, Myitkyina mare de, 1946 ning November shata 28 ya shani du ai. Bogyoke Aung San Myitkyina de du ai shaloi, Jinghpaw du salang ni hte hkrum shaga mayu ai lam tau nna shana taw n sai hte maren, Myitkyina hte Manmaw sinwang shara shagu na Jinghpaw du ni, Myitkyina mare e, ram ram law hkra du hkum nga ma ai.
29.11.47 ya shana hkying 7 hta, Jinghpaw hpyen dap No.2 ( 2nd. Kachin Rifles ) G.C.O mesaa ngu ai, hpyen du ni a ban sa shara e, Jinghpaw du salang marai 30 daram hte Bogyoke Aung San zup hpawng hpawng ma ai. dai zuphpawng hta Bogyoke Aung San gaw. shi Myitkyina de du ai lam gaw, Jinghpaw salang ni hte hkrum shaga myit mang hkrum lam tam na matu du lung wa ai re nga nna ga hpaw hpang ai. " Ya mungkan majan ngut ai hpang, Inglik ni Myen mung hpe, moi na zawn, prat madang n dep mat ,sai. anhte Myen mung masha amyu langai hte langai hpe garan nna up hkang ai lailen hte bai uphkang na, hkyen nga ai lam, shi woi awn ai Hp.S.P.L. Hpung a yaw shada ai lam gaw, Myen mung ting awm dawm shanglawt ahkang aya lu hkra ngu, yaw shada daw dan tawn sai re majaw, anhte Myen mung e nga ai amyu ni yawng myit mang hkrum, kahkyin gumdin let, shang lawt lu hkra galaw ga ngu, nanhte Jinghpaw du salang ni hte, bawng jahkrum na matu du ai re nga nna tsun ai.
Anhte Myen ni hpe Dominion Status ngu ai, shanhte Ingalik ni a shang wang kata madu up hkang aya Jaw nna, nanhte bumga masha rai nga ai Sam, Hkang, Jinghpaw, Kayin, Kayah ni hpe gaw, shanhte naw up hkang na nga yang anhte ra sharawng ai mung ting shang lawt lu hkra galaw na ngu ai yaw shada ai lam garai n byin na re, dai majaw anhte Myen ni hte myit mang hkrum nna shang lawt la ga. Ingalik a mayam prat na lawan lawt yang sha anhte a galu kaba nga mai lam amu magam ni hpe anhte nan lajang hparan la lu na re nga nna tsun htai dan ai. " Ingalik ni lama anhte Myen mung hpe. shang lawt njaw na nga yang anhte Myen ni gaw gasat nna raitim la najinjin rai nga ai'' nga tsun ai.
Dai shana Bogyoke Aung San hte sa hpawng lawm ai Jinghpaw du salang ni yawng a malai, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng gaw, "Dai na nang Bogyoke hte n myit mada ai hkrum shaga lu ai majaw anhte yawng grai kabu chyeju dum ga ai. Nang tsun lai wa ai mung masa mung ga ni hpe madat la lu ai majaw anhte ram ram myit hprang mat saga ai. anhte Jinghpaw ni Ingalik a mayam tai ai 50 ning jan laman hta, anhte a nga sa madang lam shagu hpang hkrat mat sai lam chye lu ai, laika hpaji hta grau hpang hkrat mat sai, ya mung anhte hpe ma yam naw yam na nga yang anhte n hkam lu sai anhte Jinghpaw ni mung shang lawt lu hkra galaw shakut hpang wa na sha rai sai" ngu bai htan shana tsun wu ai. Dai shana Bogyoke Aung San hte hkrum ai Jinghpaw du salang ni gaw shi hkaw tsun dan ai "Mung Masa" mung ga ni hpe madat la ngut ai hpang, ram ram wa myit hprang myit rawt shajang ma ai.
Ingalik Asuya ni mung shanhte yaw shada tawn ai hte maren, bumga masha ni hpe san san up hkang na dap hpaw tawn magang sai. Shanhte yaw shada ai 1am hta Jinghpaw ni mung myit hkrum lawm hkra Jinghpaw du salang ni hte bawng jahkrum na matu bumga masha ni hpe up hkang dap ginjaw du kaba, ( Director of Frontier Areas Administration ) Mr. H.H.C. Stevenson, Myitkyina de du ai shaloi Jinghpaw du salang ni hpe shaga hpawng nna " Ya nanhte Jinghpaw ni anhte Ingalik ni a up hkang ai n-pu e naw nga mu 5 ning laman hta nanhte Jinghpaw ni hpe Myen ni hte maren kung hpan chye chyang wa hkra lajang ya na nanhte ra ai Jinghpaw mung hpe garan ya na matu jin jin rai sai." nga nna shalen asawng ai ga tsun ai.
Dai shaloi ngai gaw, "Nanhte Inglik ni anhte Jinghpaw ni hpe mayam yam mat wa ai 50 ning laman hta, anhte a matu laika sharin jawng langai mi pyi n hpaw ya ai majaw anhte dai ni Hkang amyu ni daram laika hpaji n chye mat ai mu lu ga ai 5 ning laman hta byin hkra galaw ya na nga ai ga gaw, hpa kam shara nga a ta ? bai nanhte Inglik ni garan ya na nga ai Jinghpaw mung gaw pa layang n lawm ai bum lagaw a lahta de sha garan ya na lajang tawn ai lam chye lu ga ai, anhte galaw sha na dam lada ai pa layang n lawm ai Jinghpaw mung anhte n hkap la lu ga ai" ngu tsun ai shaloi, Stevenson ram ram mau ai hte kaya hkrum nna ga n chye htan mat ai.
Inglik Atsuya ni arawng aya jaw nna shagrau sha-a tawn ai Jinghpaw du salang n kau mi hte Atsuya mu gun hpai nga ai Jinghpaw salang n kau mi chyawm gaw Inglik a n-pu e naw nga yang she grau kaja na re nga tsun ai hta n-ga, Inglik ni maga de lawm na matu mung masha ni hpe hkaw tsun shakut lawm ma ai. Hpa majaw nga yang, Inglik Atsuya hkoi mat wa yang shanhte a arawng aya ni sum mat na tsang nna rai nga ai. Dingla shabrai ( Pension ) sha ai Jinghpaw du n kau mi gaw, Inglik ni wa mat jang anhte hpe shabrai kadai jaw na rai ta ? nga hkrit tsang ma ai. Shanglawt lu yang kade daram grau kaja ai akyu hkam sha lu na karai n mu n chye ai ni rai ma ai. Kunghpan Hpung hte Pawng Yawng Ram Rawt Hpung ningbaw ni gaw Bogyoke Aung San hte hkrum ngut ai hpang, Myen ni hte rau shang lawt la nna Jinghpaw mung garan la na matu bawng daw dan tawn sai rai.
1947 ning January shata laman Myitkyina ayebeng wa gaw laika ka ai wa hpe Sam mung Pang Lung mare e. 5.2.47 ya shani bumga masha ni a Zuphpawng hpang na re ai majaw dai zuphpawng de sa lawm na Jinghpaw kasa salang ni hpe lata la na matu shana ai. Shing rai 29-1-47 ya shani ginwang shagu na mung du salang ni, Myitkyina mare e sa du hkum nna, Jinghpaw Hpaga Hpung ni a mawdaw gram lajang ai. ginsum nta e hpawng nna Pang Lung zuphpawng de sa lawm na kasa salang marai 8 hpe lata san dat ma ai. Dai kasa salang gaw lawu de ming rawng ai ni rai ma ai.
1. Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng. (ningbaw) Kamaing Ginwang.
2. Wabaw Zau Rip. ( Amu madu ) Myitkyina
3. Salang Dingra Tang. ( Kasa Salang) Putao
4. Duwa Htingnan Gumja ( Sumpra Bum )
5. Duwa Karing Naw. ( Sumpra Bum )
6. Chying Htawng Duwa Zau Naw ( Sadung )
7. Duwa Nding Tawng U. (Hugawng )
8. Sara Chang Zung . ( Lau Hkawng )
Hpang shani Pang Lung zuphpawng de rawt sa wa na re ai majaw dai shana. Jinghpaw Hpaga Hpung Rung gawk e, lahta de mying rawng ai kasa salang ni hte kaga Kung Hpan Hpung hte Pawng Yawng Ram Rawt Hpung ningbaw ningla ni Pang Lung zuphpawng hta sa shawn na lawu de na mungga ni hpe bawng daw dan ka lajang sa wa ma ai.
1. Myen ni hte rau shang lawt la na.
2. Shanglawt lu ngut ai hpang. Jinghpaw ni law malawng ra sharawng ai hte maren, Jinghpaw mung hpe garan dai daw la na.
3. Dai Jinghpaw mung gaw. Myitkyina hte Bhamo district ( ginwang 2) lawm ai rai ra ai.
4. Myen ni hte Jinghpaw ni myit hkrum ai hte Jinghpaw mung a lamu ga jarit masat la na.
5. Jinghpaw ni lu ang ai ahkang aya ni lu la hkra, Jinghpaw ni a up hkang aya ni hpe Bumga masha ni hpe Up Hkang Dap na htawt ap la na, dai hpang, shanglawt garai n lu ai laman gan hpaw ai Myen mung Atsuya hta Jinghpaw hkring mang salang ( Wungyi) langai shalawm ya na;-
(a) Dai Jinghpaw wungyi wa gaw byin wa na Jinghpaw mung a up hkang lam hpe lit la na.
(b) Myen mung Atsuya ni a maigan mung dan ni hte matut mahkai ai bawng ban lam hta bawng ban lawm lu na.
(c) Jinghpaw salang langai mi hpe, Myen mung a makawp maga dap wungyi wa hpe hpaji jaw na matu san tawn ya na.
6. Jinghpaw ni hte Sam ni Mung Hpawm Myen Mung a Up hkang ai Upadi Hkrang ka lajang na Rapdaw hta shang lawm na.
7.Lahta de tsun lai wa sai hte maren, shanglawt lu ngut ai hpang Jinghpaw mung lawm ai mung hpawm Myen mung Atsuya hpe gaw dai daw na.
8. Munghpawm Myen Mung Atsuya kaw na Jinghpaw mung a galu kaba nga mai amu magam ni galaw lajang sa wa ai lam ni hta jai lang na gumhpraw garum ya na.
9. Lahta de ka madun mat wa ai Jinghpaw ni daw dan ai mung ga ni hpe kaga bumga masha ni yawng myit hkrum lawm hkra yaw shada ai.
Pang Lung zuphpawng hta sa shawn na lahta de na dawdan ai mungga ni hpe Amu Madu wa Myen laika hku ka lajang htang dip ngut ai hpang kasa salang marai 8 myit hkrum letmat htu ma ai. Lahta de ka madun tawn ai Jinghpaw Du salang ni daw dan ka lajang letmat htu tawn ai laika hpe, frontier Areas Committee Of Enquiry Report, Part II laika man 173 hta mu hti na re.
30-1-47 ya shani Jinghpaw kasa salang ni Pang Lung mare de rawt sa wa ma ai. Dai shana Manmaw mare de du ma ai shaloi. Manmaw Ginwang na Pang Lung zuphpawng de sa lawm na Jinghpaw salang (1) Duwa Zau Lawn (2) Lawdan Duwa Zau La (3) Sara Maran La (4) Salang Labang Grawng ni gaw dai shani sa wa magang sai lam chye na lu ai. Hpang shani Mamaw mare kaw na bai rawt sa wa yang Sam Mung Sinli Du wa a n-ta e, Manmaw kasa salang ni hte hkrum ga ai.
1.2.47 ya jahpawt, Sinli Duwa a n-ta e, Myitkyina hte Manmaw kasa salang ni zuphpawng e sa shawn na matu, Myitkyina kasa salang ni bawng daw dan ka lajang sa ai mungga laika hpe shaw madun hti dan htai dan ngut ai hpang '' Ndai anhte Myitkyina kasa salang ni bawng daw dan sa ai mungga ni hpe nanhte Manmaw kasa salang ni hte bawng jahkrum ngut jang she Pang Lung zuphpawng de matut sa wa na hku re hpa majaw nga yang, lahta de daw dan sa ai mungga ni hpe Pang Lung zuphpawng hta anhte Jinghpaw ni yawng myit hkrum daw dan sa ai mungga re ngu tang shawn na hku re" ngu tsun dan ai. Dai lam hpe Myitkyina hte Manmaw kasa salang ni ram ram aten la nna bawng ban ning dang hkat nna, Manmaw salang ni myit hkrum let dai daw dan laika hta letmat htu lawm ma ai. (Dai Pang Lung zuphpawng hta sa shawn na daw dan ai mungga laika hta Myitkyina hte Manmaw kasa salang marai shi lahkawng (12) 1 -2-47 ya jahpawt myit hkrum daw dan letmat jawm htu da ai hte seng nna, ( Frontier Areas Committee Of Enaquiry Report, Part II, laika man 174 mu hti lu na re.)
Myitkyina hte Manmaw kasa salang ni myit hkrum letmat htu ngut ai hpang Sinli mare kaw na Pang Lung mare de rau rawt sa wa ga ai. Pang Lung mare de 4-2-47 ya shani du ga ai. Dai shana de hkying 4 hta Nyaung Shwe Saw Bwa Saw Shwe Thaike ( Shanglawt Mung Hpawm Myen mung a shawng nnan Gumsan Magam ( Thamada) tai lai wa sai,) woi awn ai kaga Sam Du 5 hte shawng hkrum shaga ga ai.
Sam Sawbwa ni Jinghpaw du salang ni hpe hkap hkalum shachyen ngut ai hpang shanhte Sam du ni myit hkrum daw dan ka lajang tawn ai mungga laika hpe madun nna shanhte yaw shada tawn ai lam tsun htai dan ma ai. Sam du ni a daw dan tawn ai laika gaw Inglik hku ka tawn nna, Jinghpaw kasa salang ni hpe byan dan na matu aten naw la ra ai majaw zuphpawng jahkring tawn saga ai.
Sam Sawbwa ni daw dan tawn ai lam gaw, Myen ni hte n kanawn ai sha, Inglik ni ra sharawng ai hku, bumga masha ni hpe san san up hkang ai n-pu e naw nga na ngu ai rai malu ai. 5-2-47 ya jahpawt hkying 9 hta zuphpawng mandat e, Sam du ni hte Jinghpaw kasa salang ni bai hpawng ai shaloi, Jinghpaw kasa ni a malai, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng gaw, Jinghpaw kasa salang ni myit hkrum daw dan sa ai, mungga laika hta na, (1) Myen ni hte rau shang lawt la na. (2) shanglawt lu ai hpang, Sam mung Jinghpaw mung garan masat la na, tinang mung tinang up hkang na.(3) Sam mung hte Jinghpaw mung lawm ai Mung Hpawm Myen Mung dai daw masat na ngu ai lam masum hpe Sam du ni myit hprang, chye na hkra tsun sang lang dan wu ai. Dai shaloi Sam du nkau mi, Jinghpaw ni daw dan sa ai mungga laika ni hpe chye na, ra sharawng wa ma ai. Anhte kadai mung Myen ni a n-pu e ntaw ai, maren rap ra ai, democracy ahkang aya hte maren. tinang a mung tinang up hkang nna, tinang a amyu hpe galu kaba nga mai wa hkra galaw lajang la lu na lam ni hpe galu galang tsun sang lang dan sai. Dai hpang Sam du ni shanhte shada naw bai bawng yu na nga nna, zuphpawng hpe hpang shani bai hpawng na hku bai htawt kau masai.
Dai aten hta, Sam mung e, Sam Mung Masha Shanglawt Hpung hpe Sam mung na, hpaji chye ai Ram ma ni hpaw hpang tawn nna, Sam mung masha ni, shanglawt lu hkra galaw na nga yaw shada let, mung masa shamu shamawt hpang wa nga ma ai. Dai hpung ningbaw ningla ni mung Pang Lung zuphpawng hta sa lawm na matu Pang Lung mare e du nga shajang ma ai. Jinghpaw kasa salang ni du nga ai lam chye ai hte maren, Jinghpaw salang ni a jasat sa ai lam ni hpe chye mayu ai majaw sa jahkrum shachyen shaga san sagawn ma ai. Jinghpaw salang ni Pang Lung zuphpawng e shawn na ngu daw dan sa ai mung ga lam (9) hpe tsun shana dan ai shaloi, Shanhte Sam Mung Masha Shanglawt Hpung ni myit jasat yaw shada tawn ai hte maren re ai majaw hkap tau hkap la myit hkrum mai ai lam tsun shana ma ai. Raitim, Sam du ni hte naw bawng jahkrum na re nga tsun ma ai.
6-2-47 ya shani. zuphpawng, bai hpang yang Sam Sawbwa ni Sam Mung Masha Shang Lawt Hpung ningbaw ningla ni hte Jinghpaw kasa salang ni zuphpawng galaw nna lawu de ka madun ai mungga laika ni hpe, myit hkrum daw dan ka lajang letmat htu da saga ai.
1. Myen ni hte rau shang lawt la na.
2. Myen Mung Atsuya hpung hta; Jinghpaw hte Sam salang langai hpra shang lawm nna, dai salang yan gaw tinang a mungdaw a up hkang ai lit ni la na hte, Myen mung Atsuya maigan mungdan ni hie malut ai lam mungdan makawp maga ai lam ni hta lit jawm la na.
3. Jinghpaw kasu salang ni hpyi shawn ai Jinghpaw mung masat ya na lam hpe myit hkrum tau lawm ai.
4. Shanglawt lu ai hpang, Jinghpaw hte Sam ni, Mung Hpawm Myen mung na garan pru mayu yang pru na ahkang aya jaw na. lahta de na myit hkrum daw dan ai mungga ni hpe Sam Sawbwa marai (5) Sam Mung a Shanglawt Hpung ningbaw marai (7) Myitkyina Jinghpaw kasa salang marai (3) hte Manmaw kasa salang marai (3) myit hkrum letmat htu da sai.
6-2-47 ya shana de, Hkang dat kasa salang ni Pang Lung zuphpawng lawm na matu du sa ma ai. Dai shana Hkang salang ni hpe Jinghpaw hte Sam ni bawng daw dan da ai lam ni tsun shana sanglang dan ai shaloi nanhte Sam hte Jinghpaw du salang ni myit hkrum tawn sai lam ni hpe anhte Hkang ni hpa myit n hkrum shara nga ai nga bai htan shana ma ai.
7-2-47 ya jahpawt hkying 9 hta Sam Hkang hte Jinghpaw salang ni kalang mi bai hpawng nna Sam hte Jinghpaw ni myit hkrum daw dan tawn ai mungga ni hpe Hkang dat kasa salang ni mtyit hkrum lawm sai nga ai majaw, lahta de ka madun lai wa sai daw dan laika hta Sam, Jinghpaw hte Hkang salang ni letmat jawm htu masai.
Lahta de tsun lai wa sai hte maren Sam, Hkang hte Jinghpaw ni Myen ni hte rau shanglawt la na ngu daw dan ai lam hpe, Inglik Atsuya ni chye ai shaloi ram ram kajawng ai hte manu ma ai. Raitimung Mr. Stevenson hte shi a lawu na Inglik hte Jinghpaw du n kau mi chyawm gaw bumga masha ni shanhte yaw shada ai maga de mahkoi bai gayin wa na kun nga nna lam amyu myu hku hkan asawng shanut lawm ma ai. Pang Lung zuphpawng ngut ai aten du hkra shakut kau ma ai.
8-2-47 ya shani, Bogyuke Aung San hte shi a Atsuya hta lawm ai Wungyi U Tin Htut. Sir M.A. Maung Gyi- Hp.S.P.L. Hpung ginjaw salang U Pe Khin hte Bo Khin Maung Galay ni, Pang Lung zuphpawng lawm na matu du sa ma ai. Dai aten hta Bogyokb Aung San hpe Inglik Atsuya ni Myen Mung a Wungyi Choke aya jaw tawn masai.
9.2.47 ya shani hkying 11 hta zuphpawng man dat e, Bogyoke Aung San hte Myen hkring mang salang ni hte Jinghpaw, Sam hte Hkang dat kasa salang ni zuphpawng hpang wa sai Zuphpawng hpang ai hte maren Bogyoke Aung San shawng nnan mungga tsun ai gaw. " Dai ni ngai ndai Pang Lung zuphpawng de sa du lawm ai gaw Mungga lam lahkawng tsun shana mayu ai majaw re. (1) Anhte Myen mung e nga ai mung masha ni yawng myit mang hkrum kahkyin gumdin lu hkra galaw shakut na. (2) Ngai, England mung de sa du nna Myen mung a shanglawt lu na lam Inglik Atsuya hte bawng ai shaloi bumga masha ni a lam hte seng nna bawng ban ai lam ni nanhte du salang ni hpe htawn shana mayu ai lam ni rai nga ai.
Ya anhte Myen Mung shanglawt lu na sha rai sai. Dai majaw anhte Myen ni shanglawt lu ai hte maren bumga masha ni mung shanglawt lu ra ai. Bumga masha ni hte Inglik ni mayam naw yam nga na anhte myit n hkrum ga ai. Dai hte maren, bumga masha ni hpe Myen ni mayam n byin shangun mayu ai. Bumga masha ni shanhte ra sharawng ai hku shanhte uphkang lu na re ngu, Inglik Atsuya hpe tsun shana sai.
Myen ni Inglik a mayam n kam tai sai hte maren, bumga masha Inglik a mayam naw tai nga na hpe anhte n ra ga ai " nga galu galang hkaw tsun dan wu ai. Dai ni bumga masha ni myit mang hkrum ai hte " Myen ni shanglawt lu ai hte maren Shanglawt lu mayu ga ai” ngu tsun yang hpawt ni shang lawt lu na re, kadai hpe n hkrit nga ra sai" nga n-gun mi alu hkaw tsun ai shaloi shawa masha ni grai kabu la hpawk dum ma ai." Inglik ni gaw Myen mung e naw nga na ahkang aya n nga sai kade nna yang hkoi wa sana re ai. Dai majaw tinang a hkum tinang kam ra sai. grau nna anhte mung masha shada myit mang hkrum na ahkyak kaba rai nga ai."
Dai hpang Myen ni hte bumga masha ni kaning rai kanawn mazum na yaw shada ka lajang sa al laika ni garan jaw nna lahkawng maga ra sharawng ai lam ni tsun bawng sai. Shingrai hpang shani bai bawng matut na matu committee salang ni lata ngut ai hpang zuphpawng hpe dawm kau sai.
10-2-47 hte 11-2-47 ya, lahkawng ya tup shani shana bogyoke Aung San hte bumga masha ni n hkring n sa bawng lahkrum ga ai. Sam mung hte Hkang mung masat ya na matu loi ai daram Jinghpaw mung masat ya na ngu ai lam bawng ai hta aten ram ram na mat wa ai. Hpa majaw nga yang Sam ni Sam hkrai san rai nga ai, Hkang ni Hkang ni hkrai san rai nga ai. rai timung Jinghpaw ni hpyi ai Jinghpaw mung gaw Myitkyina hte Manmaw ginwang bum pa layang yawng Myen hte Sam ni nga shajang ai pa layang yawng hte hpe shalawm ya na matu hpyi ai re majaw Myen hte sam ni gaw Jinghpw mung kata e nga na myit hkrum n hkrum hpe garai n chye lu ai majaw yak ai lam pru na re nga tsang ya ai hku re. hpang jahtum Bogyoke Aung San gaw Jinghpaw ni ra sharawng ai hku hkan ya nna Pang Lung Ga Sadi laika hpe lahkawng maga myit hkrum daw dan da sai rai.
Dai Pang Lung Ga Sadi laika hpe 1947 ning Febuary shata 12 yajahpawt lawu de mying rawng ai ni letmat htu nna shagrin da saga ai rai.
  1. Bogyoke Aung San (Myen Mung Atsuya malai)
  2. Sao Hkun Pan Saing ( Tawng Peng Saw Bwa)
  3. Sao Shwe thaike (Ngyawng Shwe Saw Bwa)
  4. Sao Hone Hpa ( Sinli Saw Bwa)
  5. Sao Nun (Laika Saw Bwa)
  6. Sao Sam Htun (Mung Pawng Saw Bwa)
  7. Sao Htun Aye (Sam Hkang Saw Bwa)
  8. Duwa Hkun Hpung (Sinli Dat Kasa Salang)
  9. U Tin Aye (Tawng Gyi Dat Kasa Salang)
  10. U Kya Bu (Thi Baw Dat Kasa Salang)
  11. Sao Yit Hpa (Thi Baw Dat Kasa Salang)
  12. U Hkun Hti. (Pang Lung Dat Kasa Salang)
  13. U Tun Myint. (Mawk Mai Dat Kasa Salang)
  14. U Hkun Saw. (Pindaya Dat Kasa Salang)
  15. U Hpyu (Si Sai Saw Bwa a malai)
  16. Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng (Jinghpaw Kasa Salang)
  17. Duw a Zau Rip. (Jinghpaw Kasa Salang)
  18. Salang Dingra Tang. (Jinghpaw Kasa Salang)
  19. Duwa Zau Lawn. (Jinghpaw Kasa Salang)
  20. Salang Labang Grawng (Jinghpaw Kasa Salang)
  21. U Hliu Hmug (Hkang Kasa Salang)
  22. U Thaung Zahkap (Hkang Kasa Salang)
  23. U Kio Mang (Hkang Kasa Salang)
Pang Lung Ga Sadi Laika hpe letmat htu ngut ai hpang Pang Lung mare e. Myen ni hte bumga masha Sam, Hkang hte Jinghpaw ni shawng nnan myit mang hkrum ai shara re ngu masat dingsat nlung shadaw jung tawn da na matu. U Tin Aye mungga shawn nna U Kya Bu tau ya ai hte myit hkrum daw dan nna Bogyoke Aung San Ks. 1000 alu bang tawn da wu ai rai. Ya Pang Lung mare e sa yu yang dai masat Nlung shadaw hpe mu lu na re.
Myen Mung (Governor) Inglik Mung Up Duwa a Mung Bawng Ginjaw hkringmang salang n kau mi hte Sam Saw Bwa ni yawng hte kaga Sam mung Jinghpaw bumga hte Hkang bumga na dat kasa salang ni lawm nna Pang Lung mare e hpang ai Zuphpwng hta jahkring mi na Myen Mung Atsuya hte lawan htum ai hku myit hkrum shabawn dat yang, Sam, Jinghpaw hte Hkang ni Shanglawt lawan lu na re ngu kam ai majaw lawu de na hte maren myit hkrum da saga ai.
1. Bumgu masha ni a Mung Bawng Giinjaw kaw na myit Hkrum lata la ai bumga masha ni a kasa salang langai mi gaw bumga ni hte seng nna Myen mung Mung up du wa a Mung bawng Ginjaw hta Mungbawng Hkring Mang salang hku san tawn da ai.
2.Dai kasa salang wa hpe (Governor) Inglik Mung Up du wa a Mung Bawng Gin Jaw hta ( Wungyi ) salang hku san tawn na Maigan mungdan ni hte matut mahkai ai lam hta mung makawp maga ai lam ni hte maren bumga ni hpe uphkang ai magam bungli ni hpe mung Upadi hte daw dan nna.ndai Mung Bawng Ginjaw kaw na up hkang na. Bumga ni hte seng ai hkring mang salang wa hpe, bumga ni hpe up hkang na ahkang aya ni ap ya na.
3. Dai bumga masha hkring mang wa hpe karum na matu kaga bumga masha shi hte amyu n bung ai salang lahkawng hpe Mung Bawng Ginjaw hta shalawm la na. Dai salang yan gaw tinang hte seng ai bumga ni a uphkang amu magam ni hpe lit la ra ai. Hkring Mang salang kaba wa chyawm gaw bumga ni yawng a up hkang lam hta lit la ra ai.
4. Bumga masha Hkring mang kaba wa gaw Mung Bawng Ginjaw hta bumga ni hte seng ai amu bawng zuphpawng hta shi hpe tau ai hkring mang salang yan mung, sa bawng lawm na ahkang nga ai.
5. Lahta de myit hkrum ai hte maren, ( Governor) Mung up du wa a Mung Bawng Ginjaw hpe bai jat na ra timung bumga ni a madu up hkang aya hpe n sum n mat hkra galaw lajang na. Bumga ni hpe up hkang ai lam hta bumga masha ni tinang ra sharawng ai hku maw mawn na ahkang aya hpring tup lu mai ai ngu madung da nna hkap la ai.
6.Mung Hpawm Myen Mung kata e Jinghpaw Mung ngu dai daw nna dai Jinghpaw Mung a lamu ga jarit hpe masat na mungga lam hpe Shawa Mung Bawng Rapdaw hta tang madun daw dan na raitimung dai mung daw (Jinghpaw Mungdaw ) shabyin hpang wa na matu, 1935 ning Myen Mung Atsuya upadi hte maren. daw 2 ngam tawn da ai lamu ga ni hpe up hkang ai zawn Myitkyina hte Bhamo districts ginwang lamu ga ni hpe up hkang ai lam hte seng nna. bumga hkring mang salang wa hte shi hpe tau ai salang yan hte bawng ban ra ai.
7. Bumga e nga ai mung masha ni gaw democracy mungdan ni hta lu ang ai madung ahkang aya ni hpe hkam sha lu na.
8. Ndai Ga Shaka Laika hta myit hkrum tawn ai lam ni a majaw Sam mung e ya ahkang jaw tawn ai madu ra sharawng ai hku gurnhpraw jai lang ai ahkang aya n sum n mat lu na.
9. Ndai Ga Shaka laika hta myit hkrum lajang tawn ai lam ni a majaw Jinghpaw hte hkang bumga ni Myen mung Atsuya hkanse kaw karum ai ja humhpraw ni n sum n mat lu na. Myen mung Atsuya hte Bumga masha hkring mang kaba wa hte tau ai hkring mang yan lawm ai gumhpraw jai lang ai lailen hte maren Jinghpaw hte Hkang bum ni hta mung lajang ya na matu bawng ya na.
Pang Lung Ga Shaka byin wa ai lam madung gaw, Myitkyina hte Manmaw ginwang na Jinghpaw dat kasa salang ni. myit hkrum daw dan ka lajang sa ai mungga ni hta Sam Saw Bwa ni hte Sam Mung Masha Shang lawt Hpung ningbaw ningla ni jawm myit hkrum jahkrum daw dan ai Ga Shaka re ai lam hpe Jinghpaw Wunpawng myu sha ni, matsing sum hting tawn na matu hpang jahtum ka shana dat ai. " Mung Masa Usa salang ni gaw wai mat wa sai raitimung Amying gaw ahkrung nga na re"

Wa Baw Zau Rip

Source ; Duwa Wabaw Zau Rip a numhtet ga ni.

သယံဇာတ ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ေရးစစ္ပြဲ နဲ႔ ကခ်င္တိုင္းရင္းသားအေရး

သယံဇာတ ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ေရးစစ္ပြဲ နဲ႔ ကခ်င္တိုင္းရင္းသားအေရး
ဦးေအာင္ခင္၊, ကိုေဇာ္ဝင္းလႈိင္
အစုိးရကိုယ္စားလွယ္အဖြဲ႔နဲ႔ KIO/KIA ကိုယ္စားလွယ္အဖြဲ႔တို႔ဟာ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီလ (၄) ရက္ေန႔က ေရႊလီၿမိဳ ႔မွာ ေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ က်င္းပခဲ့ၾကေပမယ့္ စစ္ပြဲရပ္စဲတဲ့အဆင့္ကို မေရာက္ေသးတာ ေတြ႔ရပါတယ္။ စစ္ပြဲေစာင့္ ၾကည့္ဖို႔၊ စစ္အရွိန္က်ဆင္းဖို႔နဲ႔ ဆက္လက္ေဆြးေႏြးဖို႔အတြက္ ဂတိျပဳၾကတဲ့ အစည္းအေဝး ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အစိုးရက ေဆြးေႏြးေျဖရွင္းဖို႔ ႀကိဳးပမ္းေနေပမယ့္ အာဏာရျပည္ခိုင္ၿဖိဳးပါတီနဲ႔ စစ္တပ္ရဲ ႔ လႊတ္ေတာ္ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္အခ်ဳိ ႔ကေတာ့ စစ္အင္အားသံုးၿပီး ႏိွမ္နင္းဖို႔သာ လိုလားၾကပါတယ္။ ကခ်င္ ျပည္နယ္မွာ သယံဇာတ ထုတ္ယူေနတဲ့ အခြင့္ထူးခံ အရင္းရွင္ ဦးေတဇကလည္း ထုိးစစ္ဆင္ ေနတဲ့ အစိုးရတပ္အတြက္ ႏွစ္ဆန္းပိုင္းက က်ပ္သန္း (၇၀) လွဴဒါန္းသြားပါတယ္။ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္စစ္ပြဲဟာ နယ္ေျမလုပြဲလို ျဖစ္ေနပါတယ္။
KIO/KIA မေပၚခင္ကတည္းက ျမစ္ႀကီးနား၊ ဗန္းေမာ္နဲ႔ မီးရထားလမ္းတေလွ်ာက္က ၿမိဳ ႔ေလးေတြကို ဗမာအစိုးရအုပ္စိုးတာမို႔ KIO/KIA ဟာ ေက်းလက္ေဒသနဲ႔ တရုတ္-ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္ကိုသာ ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္ ပါတယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ KIA ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္တဲ့ နယ္ေျမဟာ က်ယ္ဝန္းေပမယ့္ ဟိုတကြက္ဒီတကြက္ ျဖစ္ေနပါ တယ္။ စတုရမ္းကိလိုမီတာ (၉၀, ၀၀၀) နီးပါးက်ယ္ဝန္တဲ့ ျပည္နယ္မွာ KIO/KIA ဟာ စတုရမ္း ကီလိုမီတာ (၄၀, ၀၀၀) ေလာက္အထိသာ သူ႔နည္းသူ႔ဟန္နဲ႔ ႀကီးစိုးႏိုင္ခဲ့တယ္လို႔ ခန္႔မွန္းၾကပါတယ္။
ဒါေပမဲ့ ၁၉၉၄ အပစ္အခတ္ရပ္စဲလုိက္တဲ့ေနာက္ပိုင္း အစိုးရတပ္ေတြမ်ားလာၿပီး အေျခအေန ေျပာင္းလဲ သြားပါတယ္။ ဖားကန္႔ေက်ာက္စိမ္းေဒသမွာ စစ္အုပ္စုနဲ႔ အခြင့္ထူးခံ အရင္းရွင္တစု ႀကီးစိုးလာပါတယ္။ ဟူးေကာင္းခ်ဳိင့္ဝွမ္းေဒသ ေရႊရွာေဖြေရးမွာ KIO နဲ႔ ဗမာစစ္အုပ္စု ၿပိဳင္ဆုိင္ၾက ပါတယ္။ အခြင့္ထူးခံ ယုဇန ကုမၼဏီရဲ ႔ စိုက္ပ်ဳိးေရးစီမံကိန္းေၾကာင့္ ဟူးေကာင္ေဒသ က်ားထိန္းသိမ္း ေရး ေဘးမဲ့ေတာမွာ က်ားသတၱဝါ ဟာ မရွိသေလာက္ ျဖစ္ေနပါတယ္။ KIO/KIA နဲ႔ အပစ္အခတ္ ရပ္စဲတဲ့ (၁၇) ႏွစ္ကာလမွာ စစ္အုပ္စု၊ အခြင့္ထူးခံ အရင္းရွင္တစု နဲ႔ တရုတ္ကုမၼဏီေတြ ကခ်င္ ျပည္နယ္ စီးပြားေရးမွာ အဓိက ပါဝင္လာပါတယ္။ အပစ္အခတ္ရပ္စဲတဲ့အတြက္ အမ်ားဆံုး အက်ဳိးခံစားရသူေတြ ျဖစ္လာပါတယ္။ ေရႊ၊ ေက်ာက္မ်က္၊ သစ္၊ သတၱဳတြင္းနဲ႔ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ လုပ္ငန္းေတြမွာ အႀကီးအက်ယ္ ရင္းႏီွးျမွပ္ႏံွၾကပါတယ္။
စစ္အုပ္စုကို ကိုယ္စားျပဳတဲ့ကုမၼဏီေတြ အႀကီးဆံုး ကန္ထရိုက္ကို ရပါတယ္။ ၂၀၀၂ မွာ စစ္အစိုးရ သတ္မွတ္တဲ့ ေရႊလုပ္ကြက္ (၄၀) ေက်ာ္မွာ (၂၀) ေက်ာ္ဟာ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္မွာပါ။ အင္မုိင္ခ၊ မလိချမစ္ဆံု၊ စြန္ပရာဘြန္၊ ပူတာအုိ၊ ဟူးေကာင္း၊ ဖားကန္႔ နဲ႔ ခ်င္းတြင္းမွာ ေရႊရွာခြင့္ ေပးပါတယ္။ စစ္အုပ္စုပိုင္ Northern Star ကုမၼဏီက တရုတ္လုပ္ငန္းရွင္ (ရင္ဟိုင္း) ကို က်ပ္ေငြ (၈၀) တန္ ေရႊလုပ္ကြက္တခု ေရာင္းခ်ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဦးေတဇ စစ္တပ္ကို လွဴတဲ့ေငြက က်ပ္သန္း (၇၀) သာ ရွိပါတယ္။ စစ္အစုိးရနဲ႔ ဖက္စပ္လုပ္တဲ့ကုမၼဏီေတြဟာ သူတုိ႔ရထားတဲ့ ေရႊတူးေဖာ္ခြင့္လိုင္စင္ေတြကို တရုတ္ကို ေရာင္းစားၾက တာမ်ားပါတယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္မွာ အမ်ားဆံုးရင္းႏီွးျမဳပ္ႏံွသူဟာ တရုတ္ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ KIO ကလည္း အထုိက္အေလွ်ာက္ အက်ဳိးအျမတ္ ခံစားရေပမယ့္ ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္တဲ့ နယ္ေျမ က်ဥ္းေျမာင္းသြား ပါတယ္။
သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ပ်က္စီးမွန္းေပမယ့္ ရန္ပံုေငြရရွိေရးအတြက္ သယံဇာတလုပ္ငန္းမွာ KIO ပါဝင္ လုပ္ကိုင္လာရပါတယ္။ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္က စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းေတြဟာ ပြင့္လင္းျမင္သာမႈကင္းတဲ့ က်ိတ္ဝိုင္း ေတြျဖစ္တာမို႔ အဂတိလိုက္စားမႈမ်ားပါတယ္။ စစ္အုပ္စုနဲ႔ တရုတ္ဟာ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ကို အမဲဖ်က္သလို ခုတ္ပိုင္းလီွးျဖတ္ေနတယ္လို႔ ဆိုႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ အစိုးရတပ္ရင္း (၁၂၀) ေက်ာ္ဟာ KIA ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္တဲ့ နယ္ေျမ မွာေနရာယူၿပီး တုိက္ခိုက္ေနတာဟာ ႏိုင္ငံအခ်င္းခ်င္းျဖစ္ပြားတဲ့ စစ္ပြဲလိုျဖစ္ေန တယ္လို႔ KIA ဒု-စစ္ဦးခ်ဳပ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ဂြမ္ေမာ္ (၂၀၁၁) ဒီဇင္ဘာလမွာ ေျပာသြားပါတယ္။ တကယ္ေတာ့ ဗမာအစိုးရတပ္ဟာ သဘာဝ သယံဇာတကို အမ်ားဆံုး ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္ေအာင္ ထိုးစစ္ဆင္ေနတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။
KIA ကခ်င္တပ္မဟာ အခ်င္းခ်င္းဆက္သြယ္လို႔ မရေအာင္ႀကိဳးပမ္းတာဟာ အစိုးရထိုးစစ္ရဲ ႔ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ တခု ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ KIA တပ္မဟာ (၅) ခုဟာ အေရွ ႔အေနာက္ေတာင္ေျမာက္နဲ႔ ဗဟုိဆိုၿပီး နယ္ေျမ (၅) ခုခြဲၿပီး ေနရာယူထားပါတယ္။ ဗဟိုနယ္ေျမကို တာဝန္ယူတဲ့ တပ္မဟာ (၅) ဟာ KIO/KIA ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ကို ခုခံကာကြယ္ပါတယ္။ ၁၉၈၇ မွာ တရုတ္-ျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္က KIO/KIA ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ေတြျဖစ္တဲ့ Na Hpaw နဲ႔ Pa Jau ကို အစိုးရတပ္က သိမ္းပိုက္ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ေတြ က်ဆံုးပ်က္စီးသြားေပမယ့္ KIO/KIA လက္နက္ ကိုင္လႈပ္ရွားမႈဟာ မပ်က္စီးဘဲ ဒီကေန႔အထိ ရွင္သန္ေနပါတယ္။
ဒါေပမဲ့ ဝ ျပည္ေသြးစည္ညီညႊတ္ေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႔လို ျပည္နယ္တခုလံုးကို ခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္ဖို႔ဆိုတာ KIA အတြက္ မျဖစ္ ႏိုင္သေလာက္ပါ။ လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ အႏွစ္အစိတ္နဲ႔ ကြာျခားတာကေတာ့ လိုင္ဇာ ေခတ္မွာ တရုတ္ရင္းႏီွး ျမွပ္ႏံွမႈ ေတြ မ်ားလာတာပဲ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ ဗမာနဲ႔တရုတ္ကို အေပးအယူလုပ္ၿပီး ကခ်င္ အမ်ဳိးသားေရးနဲ႔ သယံဇာထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ေရးအတြက္ မွ်မွ်တတျဖစ္ေအာင္ ႀကိဳးပမ္းဖို႔သာ ရွိပါတယ္။ ေရႊလီေဆြးေႏြးပြဲမွာ တရုတ္ အစိုးရ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ေတြ သက္ေသအျဖစ္ ပါဝင္လာကို အခြင့္ ေကာင္းယူၿပီး ကခ်င္တိုင္ရင္းသား အေရးကို ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာေျဖရွင္းႏိုင္လိမ္မယ္လို႔ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ရပါတယ္။

Part 3: Discussion on public views regarding Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's political position.

Part 3: Discussion on public views regarding Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's political position.

Sunday, February 3, 2013

February(5) Jinghpaw Wunpawng Amyu sha ni a Rawt Malan N’htoi Labau kadun

February(5) Jinghpaw Wunpawng Amyu sha ni a Rawt Malan N’htoi Labau kadun
WWII ngut ai hpang 1947 ning hta General Aung San gaw Myen Mungdan hpe English Colony Asuya kaw nna Mungdan Shanglawt la na matu Bum nga bawsang Kachin, Chin hte Shan amyu sha ni hpe kahkyin gumdin lam galaw wa nu ai. General Aung San hte ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL(Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) Ningbaw ni gaw Shanglawt nlu shi ai ten bawsang amyu ni hpe ga sadi amyu myu jaw wa sai raitim Myen mungdan shanglawt lu ngut ai hpang 40 ning  laman e bawsang(ethnic) amyu ni yawng hpe Myen tai mat hkra galaw na masing hpe shim ai hku ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL ningbaw ni a lapran  jawm bawngban masing jahkrat tawn ai raiyang dai masing kaba hpe Jinghpaw du salang ni chye kau masai.
ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL  Asuya gaw Myen mung shanglawt lu ai 1948 January(4) hpang kaw na 1947 Constitution hpe shingdu gayin kau masai, Bawsang ni a nga-lu nga-mai lam ni hpe dingbai dingna jaw hpang wa masai, tinang a mungdaw hta ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya ginjaw kaw na lam shagu hpe magra jum wa ai lam ni byin hpang wa sai.
Du Kaba Lahpai  Naw Seng hte First Kachin Battalion na Jinghpaw du salang ni gaw Myen Amyu kaba lailen hte Colony nnan ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya a galaw ai ladat, jasat jasa ni hpe nra sharawng ai hte Jinghpaw Wunpawng Amyu sha ni gaw  Myen Amyu sha ni hte shai ai htunghking nga-sat nga-sa maka ni grai law ai majaw rau jawm nga yang anhte sha roi rip hkrum wa na re dai majaw tinang mungdan nan gaw de sa wa ra sai ngu ai hpe jawm bawngban ngut ai hpang jang P.N.D.F.(Pawng Yawng National Defence Force) Rawt Malan Hpyen Dap hpe 1949 February (19)  e shawng nnan hpaw ninghtan dat masai, dai rawt malan hpung hta lawm ai ningbaw ni gaw-
  1. General Zau Seng                                       (Ningbaw)
  2. Brigadier Hprang Gam Di                           (1st Bde. Comdr.)
  3. Brigadier Hkam Man                                   (2nd Bde Comdr.)
  4. Major Lahtaw Zau Seng                              (1st Bde. B.M.)
  5. Major Ndau Krang                                        (2nd Bde. B.M.)
  6. Hta-nar Uk Maran Zau Bawk                      (Balik Dap Comdr.)
  7. S.I.P. Shanghtin Yaw                                   (Kaichyan Dap Comdr.)
  8. Banggai Du Zau La                                                 (Gumhpraw Dum Du)
  9. Salang Waje Naw                                        (Uphkang Dap Lithkam)
  10. Salang Hpauna La Gawng                         (Uphkang Dap Lithkam) ni rai nga ma ai.
Ndai PNDF hpung hpe lahta Sam Mung Kutkai ginwang e hpaw ninghtan wa ai rai nga ai. PNDF gaw ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL. Asuya npu e hpyen magam gun nga ai kaga jinghpaw hpyen dap ni kaw na ram ram gasat ninghkap ai hkrum lai wa sai, General Lahpai Naw Seng hpung ni gaw Jinghpaw shada sat hkat ra ai majaw ram ram myit hta hkra mat ma ai. Jinghpaw mung de gasat lung wa yang ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL. Asuya gaw shanhte la-hka shabri shabrai jaw tawn ai Jinghpaw hpyen du hpyenla ni hpe  gasat ninghkap shangun ai hpe nra sharawng ai majaw General Naw Seng gaw shi hte marai (300) 1950 ning e Miwa mung de koi yen mat wa sai.
1957-60 ning laman e ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL. Asuya  gaw Myen mung bawsang amyu ni hpe yawng Myen tai mat wa na masing kaba hpe hkrang shapraw hpang wa masai- dai masing kaba nhkan e bum nga bawsang amyu ni a laili laika sharin jawng ni hpe pat kau hkum shingdang ai lam ni galaw hpang wa masai,  laika sharing jawng ni hta Myen laika hpe madung sharing na tara jahkrat galaw hpang wa masai. ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL. kata San-seng(သန္ ့ရွင္း) hta Nga-grin (တည္ျမဲ) lahkawng kaw na, 1960 ning San-seng ningbaw U Nu gaw shi ralata poi hta dang yang Buddha makam hpe mungdan a makam masham hku nna masat ya na matu ga sadi jaw nhtawm ra lata poi shang sai, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng gaw U Nu a San-seng hpung rai nga ai. U Nu ra lata poi hta dang mat jang Buddha mungdan shatai na re majaw Jinghpaw WP ni gaw U Nu hpe madi shadaw ai Sama Duwa hpe ninghkap ai lam galaw wa sai. 1960 December (19) Sama Duwa ni lung wa ai Wanleng hpe Myitkyina Wanleng Daru ndu shi yang Jinghpaw WP Mung shawa 10,000 mi jan Wanleng hpe hkap jahkring n-gun madun masai, sama duwa hpe myen hpyen dap ni kaw nna jau woi mat wa ai majaw asak kaw na lawt mat wa ai re nga nna mung matsing la lu nga sai.
Ndai gaw WP ni mung masa myi hpaw wa ai lam rai nna shawng nnan na Jinghpaw Wunpawng mung shawa ni a n-gun madun ai lam mung rai nga ai, dai ten kaw na Rangoon, Mandalay dakkasu WP jawng ma ni gaw mung masa ram ram galaw hpang wa masai lam chye lu ai, dai ten na grau mying gumhkawng ai WP Magazing mying gaw “Jawngma Shanan” ngu ai rai nga ai.
Dai shaning Myitkyina  K.B.H.S(Kachin Baptist High School) e Sara Kaba Maran Brang Seng Jawng Up galaw nga ai ten shi nan woi ningbaw nhtawm “Htunghking Sharawt Ramma Hpung” ngu ai mung masa shamu shamawt ai hpung hpe hpaw ninghtan dat lu masai. Ndai mung masa shamu shamawt lam gaw WP ramma ni hpe mung masa hpaji hte mung masa myit ram ram sharawt ya lu wa sai. San-seng ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL ni a maw lanyat ai lam lani hte lani grau grau dandawng wa masai, bumnga ethnic bawsang ni nchyi nmu byin lai wa masai.  1961 ning hta Bum nga bawsang ni Taunggyi e hkrum-ra zuphpawng hpe June 8-18 laman galaw lu masai, ndai bum nga bawsang ni a zuphpawng kaba kaw na pru wa ai myithkrum dawdan lajin ai lam ni hpe ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL asuya de tang madun ai hpang Myen malawng rai nga ai ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya gaw mungdan kata na manghkang ni hpe nchye hparan wa sai majaw General Ne Win hpe mungdan uphkang lam hpe matut lit la galaw sa mat wa na matu shim ai hku bai jahkrup bawngban wa masai.
Mung masa su hprang wa sai WP Dakkasu jawngma ni gaw lawu na mung masa mayak ni hpe hparan sa wa na matu ginjang tam hpang wa masai.
1.    Panglong Ga Sadi hte nbung npre ai hku ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya hkrang shapraw sa wa nga ai lam
2.    ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya gaw Mungdaw ni hpe Colony mayam jasat hte up sha nga ai lam.
3.    Munghpawm Asuya gaw Mungdaw ni hpe Sut Masa, Mung Masa hte Shinggyim ngasat masa lailen ni hta la-ba ka-up jumtek kau nhtawm amyu shamat zai ladat ni hte galaw sa wa nga ai lam.
4.    Myen malawng nga ai pa ga de sha rawt jat galu kaba lam galaw nhtawm mungdaw ni hta English colony prat hta pi grau grit nyen wa ai lam.
WP Dakkasu jawngma ningbaw ni gaw lahta na mung masa ginlam ni hpe ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ/ AFPFL Asuya  hte parliament e tang madun na matu Jinghpaw Mung masa salang ni hpe lang hte lang shadut wa yu tim tatut hta hkrang nlu shapraw ma ai. Jinghpaw WP mung masa hpung salang ni hku nna mung masa Ku ntsa(political dialogue) dara gasat na matu ginjang gara hku mung nmai byin mat, nmu mada mat ai hpang daw hta Jinghpaw WP Dakkasu Jawngma ni gaw laknak lang rawt malan gasat na matu jahkrup bawngban hpang wa masai.
1957 ning November shata hta Rangoon Jinghpaw Dakkasu jawngma ningbaw ni 7 Stars ngu ai hpung hpe hpaw nhtawm laknak lang rawt malan na matu woi galaw hpang masai. Ndai 7Stars hpung gaw KIO a numshawng hpung ngu tsun yang nshut nga ai.
Dai 7Stars ningbaw ni gaw-
1-    Lahtaw Zau Tu                                  (Ningbaw)
2-    Slg. Hpauyu Tu Lum                        (shawng na Amu Madu)
3-    Slg. Malizup Zau Mai                       (hpang e galai ai Amu Madu)
4-    Slg. Pungshwe Zau Seng               (Hpung Salang)
5-    Slg. K.D. Brang Gam                       (Hpung Salang)
6-    Slg. Nahpaw Gun Jawng                (Hpung Salang)
7-    Slg. Malang Shawng                       (Hpung Salang) ni rai ma ai.
Ningbaw L. Zau Tu hte Amu Madu Malizup Zau Mai yan 1958-59 ning jawng dat ten laman Kayin rawt malan dap de sa nhtawm matut mahkai hpang, laknak lang rawt malan hkrun lam hpe hkrang shapraw hpang wa masai.
1959 ning  e Kayah rawt malan dap 1st Bde. Comdr galaw nga ai L. Zau Tu a kahpu Du Kaba L. Zau Seng hpe ningbaw lata san masai.
1959 ning htum wa mahka e Du Kaba L. Zau Seng Slg. L. Zau Tu hte Slg. Pungshwe Zau Seng ni marai masum Myitkyina de lung wa nhtawm Amu Madu Slg. Malizup Zau Mai, Sara kaba Maran Brang Seng hte kaga WP salang ni hte mungdan bungle wa hkrum bawngban nhtawm 1960 ning e nam rawng hpang na matu myit hkrum dawdan  masat masai.
Rawt Malan nam rawng hpang wa ai ten hta arang shapraw sa wa na matu Du Kaba L. Zau Seng Kayah(Karenni) Mung e jau kaw na makoi mahkawng tawn ai Sanat laknak ni hte ja gumhpraw ni hpe sa la na matu Gyung Dau hte La Hkaw yan hpe shayu dat dat ai rai yang dai datkasa lahkawng yan gaw Myen hpyen ni rim ai hkrum masai, dai yan a shiga gaw rim hkrum ai shani kaw na daini du hkra shiga hpa nga mung nna mat sai, Ndai salang lahkawng rim hkrum ai majaw 1960 ning nam rawng rawt malan hpang wa na aten hpe bai htawt sit kau ra masai.
1956-59 du hkra Jinghpaw mung lamu ga ni rai nga ai Miwa Jarit mayan na Hpimaw, Gawlang, Kanghpang mare masum hpe miwa ni atik anang hpyi shadut ai lam hpe Jinghpaw Wunpawng Du salang ni myit nhkrum ai lapran e 1960 October(1) ya shani U Nu hte Chuenlai yan ta masat htu lamu ga ap kau ai hpang kaw na Jinghpaw Wunpawng amyu sha ningbaw ni a rawt malan gasat na lawnglam gaw grau grau ngang grin mat wa ai lam rai nga ai.
Du Kaba L. Zau Seng gaw WP mung shawa a n-gun jaw madi shadaw ai lam a jaw e 1961 February(5) ya shani rawt malan bungli hpe shawng nnan galaw hpang wa na matu lahta Sam Mung, Lashio Mare, Lunglaw Pa kaw mung shawa ni hpe saw shaga nhtawm zuphpawng woi galaw sai. Dai zuphpawng hta sa du ai mung shawa, mung salang ni hte rau “Wunpawng Mungdan Shanglawt Hpung(KIO)” hpe hpaw shabawn dat lu masai, matut manoi sha “Wunpawng Mungdan Shawnglawt Hpyen Dap(KIA)” hpe mung awngdang ai hte dai shani nan sha hpaw ninghtan dat lu masai. Shingrai dai shani nhtoi February(5) ya hpe mung Rawt Malan N’htoi ngu masat tawn masai rai.
(Ndai Jinghpaw Wunpawng Amyu sha ni a rawt malan labau kadun gaw ndai hku nan she rain a re ngu ai hku shatawng shada nhtawm ka ai lam nrai nngai, daini galu kaba wa nga sai hpawt hpra na anhte a ningbaw ningla ni a matu Jinghpaw Wunpawng amyu sha ni a Labau ni hpe sawk hkaja na matu ganoi nmai byin na daram yak hkak la ai masa ni hta loili sha pi chye la, hkaja la lu mu ga ngu yaw shada let dep hkap ai laili laika ni tam ahkrawk nna shakut ka dat ai labau kadun rai mali ai, grau hkum tsup grau htuk manu ai hku law law ka wa lu na hpe mung myit mada nngai)
Ka ai, Um Tu Lum(USA)
-       Labau Ginshi(in kachin) by Cpt. Htingbai Naw Awn
-       ဒီမိုကေ၇စီေျပာင္ျပန္ - ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ ၀န္ၾကီးေဟာင္း ဦးဇန္ထဆင္
-       The Majic War by Ian Fellowes
-       Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity by Martin Smith
-       Lords of the Burma’s Northern Frontier by Bertil Lintner